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President calls for calm as his re-election is questioned globally.
NAIROBI, Kenya - Kenya's president threatened a tough crackdown Monday as rioters rampaged for a third day to protest what they called his sham re-election - a bloody convulsion threatening what has been East Africa's most stable and prosperous democracy.
At least 135 Kenyans were reported killed in violence that flared from the shantytowns of Nairobi to resort towns on the sweltering coast. Opposition leaders set the stage for more turmoil by calling for a million people to rally against President Mwai Kibaki.
In the slums of Nairobi, rioters waved machetes and shouted "Kibaki must go!" Police beat protesters with clubs, fired tear gas and shot live bullets in the air. Much of the country was at a standstill, with shops closed and many people hunkered inside their homes.
"We are ready to die and we're ready for serious killings," 24-year-old James Onyango, who lives in Nairobi's Kibera slum, told the Associated Press as homes and shops around him burned.
While there are no strong policy differences between the two camps, the bloodshed exposed tribal resentments that have long festered in Kenya, where Kibaki's Kikuyu people - the largest group - are accused of turning their dominance of politics and business to the detriment of others. Political loyalties are often tribal-linked, and ethnic gangs were reported attacking rival groups.
The opposition candidate, Raila Odinga, a member of the Luo tribe, dropped his plan for a mass protest rally Monday after a warning from police. But he called for 1-million people to march Thursday on the capital's Uhuru Park, where protesters seeking multiparty democracy massed in the early 1990s.
"We are calling for mass action," said Odinga, who led Kibaki in opinion polls before Thursday's ballot as well as in early election returns until his lead suddenly evaporated as official figures came out over the weekend. "We will march wearing black arm bands because we are mourning."
Kibaki, in a New Year's message to Kenyans, called "for healing and reconciliation," but he warned that his government would "deal decisively with those who breach the peace by intensifying security across the country."
Three police officers independently told AP journalists that they had been ordered to shoot to kill to stop rioters. A government spokesman denied such an order was given.
Kenya's Red Cross said that many of the dead were killed in ethnic clashes and that gangs were even checking on the tribal affiliations of Red Cross workers trying to help the injured.
The U.S. government, which has allied with the Kenyan government against Islamic militants in the region, joined others in questioning the validity of official results Sunday that declared Kibaki the election winner.
The State Department expressed serious concerns about what it called irregularities in the vote count. Tom Casey, deputy spokesman at the State Department, suggested the United States was not ready to recognize any winner.
The European Union also questioned the outcome.
The U.S. Embassy in Kenya warned all Americans in the country to remain vigilant and aware of their personal security in light of the unrest. It encouraged all U.S. citizens to remain in place, saying security throughout the country is unpredictable.
Population: 36.9-million (July 2007 est.)
Cities: Nairobi, capital (pop. 2.9-million); Mombasa (828,500)
Area: 224,960 square miles, slightly smaller than Texas
Major languages: Swahili (national), English (official); more than 40 other African languages.
Major religions: Christianity (Protestant 45 percent, Roman Catholic 33 percent); Islam 10 percent, indigenous beliefs
Median age: 18.6 years
Life expectancy: 55.31 years
Adult literacy rate: 85.1 percent
Main exports: Tea, coffee, horticultural products, petroleum products
Unemployment rate: 40 percent (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line: 50 percent (2000 est.)
Sources: CIA World Fact Book, BBC News, State Department Background Notes
[Last modified December 31, 2007, 22:14:20]