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Russian Czars, 1613-1917

The Romanov Dynasty

According to Russian custom, the czars were addressed by their patronymic, a traditional form of respect used by men and women even in present day Russia. In forming a patronymic, the person's given name is followed by his or her father's name with "ovich" added to the end of the father's name for a male and "ovna" added to the end of the father's name for a woman. Some czars and czarinas had special attributes or numerals added to their titles. Ivan IV, for example, also was Ivan Vasilievich and Ivan Grozni (thunder), also known in English as Ivan the Terrible.

Peter I (Peter the Great) was the first czar to declare himself an "Emperor" during his second coronation in the more Western style on May 7, 1724. Starting with the second wife of Peter I, Martha Skavronska, a Livonian, czarinas who were not Russian became Russian Orthodox, assuming a Russian name and patronymic.

1. Mikhail Feodorovich......................1613-1645 (First Romanov czar)

2. Alexei Mikhailovich......................1645-1676 (Son of Mikhail)

3. Feodor Alexeevich........................1676-1682 (Son of Alexei)

4. Ivan Alexeevich (Ivan V).................1682-1689 (Son of Alexei)

5. Peter Alexeevich (Peter I)...............1682-1725 (a.k.a. Peter the Great)
Ivan V and Peter I were co-czars until Ivan died in 1689. The half brothers were 16 and 10 year olds and the only czars ever crowned in a dual coronation. Their sister, Sofia, was their regent.

6. Ekaterina Alexeevna (Catherine I)........1725-1727 (Martha Skavronska, widow of Peter I)

7. Peter Alexeevich (Peter II)..............1727-1730 (Grandson of Peter I, by his son Alexei)

8. Anna lvanovna............................1730-1740 (Daughter of Ivan V)

9. Ivan VI..................................1740-1741 (Great grandson of Ivan V)

10. Elizaveta Petrovna (Elizabeth I)....... 1741-1762 (Daughter of Peter I and Martha Skavronska)

11. Peter III...............................1762 (Grandson of Peter 1)
His German father married Anne, daughter of Peter I. Peter III admired everything Prussian and despised the Russians. He was killed after a palace revolution led by his wife, Catherine II, in 1762.

12. Catherine II.............................1762-1796 (a.k.a. Catherine the Great)
Catherine was a princess, born Sophie, in the small German principality of Anholt-Zerbst She married Peter III in 1744. Neither she nor Peter III were normally referred to by >a patronymic.

13. Paul I (Son of Peter III ?)..............1796-1801

14. Alexander I (Pavlovich)..................1801-1825 (a.k.a. The Blessed)
It is said he faked his death and entered a monastery in a remote area of Russia. When his tomb was opened by Soviet authorities a few years ago, it was empty.

15. Nicholas I (Pavlovich)...................1825-1855 (Brother of Alexander I)

16. Alexander II (Nikolaevich)...............1855-1881 (a.k.a. Czar Emancipator)
He is known for freeing the serfs in 1861. He was assassinated by a bomb in 1881.

17. Alexander III (Alexandrovich)............1881-1894 (a.k.a. Czar Peacemaker)
He began industrialization of Russia.

18. Nicholas II (Alexandrovich)..............1894-1917 Nicholas abdicated the throne in 1917)
He, his wife and five children were murdered by the Bolsheviks in 1918.

Source: Treasures of the Czars education guide by Vera B. Espinola.


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